2. Uniform Resource Identifier

Form

URI

Result

URI:

TLD:

Explanatory notes

A URL (HTTP, FTP or email) is usually what a domain investigation starts with.
These URLs are sub-types of URIs.

Achtung Schleudergefahr If email addresses "hide" in longish text passages, you can find them by using what is called a regular expression, for example. (Click for more details.)

[a-z0-9\!#$%&'*+/=?^_`{|}~-]+(\.[a-z0-9\!#$%&'*+/=?^_`{|}~-]+)*@([a-z0-9]([a-z0-9-]*[a-z0-9])?\.)+(a aa|aarp|abarth|abb|abbott|abbvie|abc|able|abogado|abudhabi|ac|academy|accenture|accountant|accountan ts|aco|active|actor|ad|adac|ads|adult|ae|aeg|aero|aetna|af|afamilycompany|afl|africa|ag|agakhan|agen cy|ai|aig|aigo|airbus|airforce|airtel|akdn|al|alfaromeo|alibaba|alipay|allfinanz|allstate|ally|alsac e|alstom|am|amazon|americanexpress|americanfamily|amex|amfam|amica|amsterdam|an|analytics|android|an quan|anz|ao|aol|apartments|app|apple|aq|aquarelle|ar|arab|aramco|archi|army|arpa|art|arte|as|asda|as ia|associates|at|athleta|attorney|au|auction|audi|audible|audio|auspost|author|auto|autos|avianca|aw |aws|ax|axa|az|azure|ba|baby|baidu|banamex|bananarepublic|band|bank|bar|barcelona|barclaycard|barcla ys|barefoot|bargains|baseball|basketball|bauhaus|bayern|bb|bbc|bbt|bbva|bcg|bcn|bd|be|beats|beauty|b eer|bentley|berlin|best|bestbuy|bet|bf|bg|bh|bharti|bi|bible|bid|bike|bing|bingo|bio|biz|bj|bl|black |blackfriday|blanco|blockbuster|blog|bloomberg|blue|bm|bms|bmw|bn|bnl|bnpparibas|bo|boats|boehringer |bofa|bom|bond|boo|book|booking|boots|bosch|bostik|boston|bot|boutique|box|bq|br|bradesco|bridgeston e|broadway|broker|brother|brussels|bs|bt|budapest|bugatti|build|builders|business|buy|buzz|bv|bw|by| bz|bzh|ca|cab|cafe|cal|call|calvinklein|cam|camera|camp|cancerresearch|canon|capetown|capital|capita lone|car|caravan|cards|care|career|careers|cars|cartier|casa|case|caseih|cash|casino|cat|catering|ca tholic|cba|cbn|cbre|cbs|cc|cd|ceb|center|ceo|cern|cf|cfa|cfd|cg|ch|chanel|channel|charity|chase|chat |cheap|chintai|chloe|christmas|chrome|chrysler|church|ci|cipriani|circle|cisco|citadel|citi|citic|ci ty|cityeats|ck|cl|claims|cleaning|click|clinic|clinique|clothing|cloud|club|clubmed|cm|cn|co|coach|c odes|coffee|college|cologne|com|comcast|commbank|community|company|compare|computer|comsec|condos|co nstruction|consulting|contact|contractors|cooking|cookingchannel|cool|coop|corsica|country|coupon|co upons|courses|cpa|cr|credit|creditcard|creditunion|cricket|crown|crs|cruise|cruises|csc|cu|cuisinell a|cv|cw|cx|cy|cymru|cyou|cz|dabur|dad|dance|data|date|dating|datsun|day|dclk|dds|de|deal|dealer|deal s|degree|delivery|dell|deloitte|delta|democrat|dental|dentist|desi|design|dev|dhl|diamonds|diet|digi tal|direct|directory|discount|discover|dish|diy|dj|dk|dm|dnp|do|docs|doctor|dodge|dog|doha|domains|d oosan|dot|download|drive|dtv|dubai|duck|dunlop|duns|dupont|durban|dvag|dvr|dz|earth|eat|ec|eco|edeka |edu|education|ee|eg|eh|email|emerck|energy|engineer|engineering|enterprises|epost|epson|equipment|e r|ericsson|erni|es|esq|estate|esurance|et|etisalat|eu|eurovision|eus|events|everbank|exchange|expert |exposed|express|extraspace|fage|fail|fairwinds|faith|family|fan|fans|farm|farmers|fashion|fast|fede x|feedback|ferrari|ferrero|fi|fiat|fidelity|fido|film|final|finance|financial|fire|firestone|firmdal e|fish|fishing|fit|fitness|fj|fk|flickr|flights|flir|florist|flowers|flsmidth|fly|fm|fo|foo|food|foo dnetwork|football|ford|forex|forsale|forum|foundation|fox|fr|free|fresenius|frl|frogans|frontdoor|fr ontier|ftr|fujitsu|fujixerox|fun|fund|furniture|futbol|fyi|ga|gal|gallery|gallo|gallup|game|games|ga p|garden|gay|gb|gbiz|gd|gdn|ge|gea|gent|genting|george|gf|gg|ggee|gh|gi|gift|gifts|gives|giving|gl|g lade|glass|gle|global|globo|gm|gmail|gmbh|gmo|gmx|gn|godaddy|gold|goldpoint|golf|goo|goodhands|goody ear|goog|google|gop|got|gov|gp|gq|gr|grainger|graphics|gratis|green|gripe|grocery|group|gs|gt|gu|gua rdian|gucci|guge|guide|guitars|guru|gw|gy|hair|hamburg|hangout|haus|hbo|hdfc|hdfcbank|health|healthc are|help|helsinki|here|hermes|hgtv|hiphop|hisamitsu|hitachi|hiv|hk|hkt|hm|hn|hockey|holdings|holiday |homedepot|homegoods|homes|homesense|honda|honeywell|horse|hospital|host|hosting|hot|hoteles|hotels| hotmail|house|how|hr|hsbc|ht|htc|hu|hughes|hyatt|hyundai|ibm|icbc|ice|icu|id|ie|ieee|ifm|iinet|ikano |il|im|imamat|imdb|immo|immobilien|in|inc|industries|infiniti|info|ing|ink|institute|insurance|insur e|int|intel|international|intuit|investments|io|ipiranga|iq|ir|irish|is|iselect|ismaili|ist|istanbul |it|itau|itv|iveco|iwc|jaguar|java|jcb|jcp|je|jeep|jetzt|jewelry|jio|jlc|jll|jm|jmp|jnj|jo|jobs|jobu rg|jot|joy|jp|jpmorgan|jprs|juegos|juniper|kaufen|kddi|ke|kerryhotels|kerrylogistics|kerryproperties |kfh|kg|kh|ki|kia|kim|kinder|kindle|kitchen|kiwi|km|kn|koeln|komatsu|kosher|kp|kpmg|kpn|kr|krd|kred| kuokgroup|kw|ky|kyoto|kz|la|lacaixa|ladbrokes|lamborghini|lamer|lancaster|lancia|lancome|land|landro ver|lanxess|lasalle|lat|latino|latrobe|law|lawyer|lb|lc|lds|lease|leclerc|lefrak|legal|lego|lexus|lg bt|li|liaison|lidl|life|lifeinsurance|lifestyle|lighting|like|lilly|limited|limo|lincoln|linde|link| lipsy|live|living|lixil|lk|llc|llp|loan|loans|locker|locus|loft|lol|london|lotte|lotto|love|lpl|lplf inancial|lr|ls|lt|ltd|ltda|lu|lundbeck|lupin|luxe|luxury|lv|ly|ma|macys|madrid|maif|maison|makeup|ma n|management|mango|map|market|marketing|markets|marriott|marshalls|maserati|mattel|mba|mc|mcd|mcdona lds|mckinsey|md|me|med|media|meet|melbourne|meme|memorial|men|menu|meo|merckmsd|metlife|mf|mg|mh|mia mi|microsoft|mil|mini|mint|mit|mitsubishi|mk|ml|mlb|mls|mm|mma|mn|mo|mobi|mobile|mobily|moda|moe|moi |mom|monash|money|monster|montblanc|mopar|mormon|mortgage|moscow|moto|motorcycles|mov|movie|movistar |mp|mq|mr|ms|msd|mt|mtn|mtpc|mtr|mu|museum|mutual|mutuelle|mv|mw|mx|my|mz|na|nab|nadex|nagoya|name|n ationwide|natura|navy|nba|nc|ne|nec|net|netbank|netflix|network|neustar|new|newholland|news|next|nex tdirect|nexus|nf|nfl|ng|ngo|nhk|ni|nico|nike|nikon|ninja|nissan|nissay|nl|no|nokia|northwesternmutua l|norton|now|nowruz|nowtv|np|nr|nra|nrw|ntt|nu|nyc|nz|obi|observer|off|office|okinawa|olayan|olayang roup|oldnavy|ollo|om|omega|one|ong|onl|online|onyourside|ooo|open|oracle|orange|org|organic|orientex press|origins|osaka|otsuka|ott|ovh|pa|page|pamperedchef|panasonic|panerai|paris|pars|partners|parts| party|passagens|pay|pccw|pe|pet|pf|pfizer|pg|ph|pharmacy|phd|philips|phone|photo|photography|photos| physio|piaget|pics|pictet|pictures|pid|pin|ping|pink|pioneer|pizza|pk|pl|place|play|playstation|plum bing|plus|pm|pn|pnc|pohl|poker|politie|porn|post|pr|pramerica|praxi|press|prime|pro|prod|productions |prof|progressive|promo|properties|property|protection|pru|prudential|ps|pt|pub|pw|pwc|py|qa|qpon|qu ebec|quest|qvc|racing|radio|raid|re|read|realestate|realtor|realty|recipes|red|redstone|redumbrella| rehab|reise|reisen|reit|reliance|ren|rent|rentals|repair|report|republican|rest|restaurant|review|re views|rexroth|rich|richardli|ricoh|rightathome|ril|rio|rip|rmit|ro|rocher|rocks|rodeo|rogers|room|rs |rsvp|ru|rugby|ruhr|run|rw|rwe|ryukyu|sa|saarland|safe|safety|sakura|sale|salon|samsclub|samsung|san dvik|sandvikcoromant|sanofi|sap|sapo|sarl|sas|save|saxo|sb|sbi|sbs|sc|sca|scb|schaeffler|schmidt|sch olarships|school|schule|schwarz|science|scjohnson|scor|scot|sd|se|search|seat|secure|security|seek|s elect|sener|services|ses|seven|sew|sex|sexy|sfr|sg|sh|shangrila|sharp|shaw|shell|shia|shiksha|shoes| shop|shopping|shouji|show|showtime|shriram|si|silk|sina|singles|site|sj|sk|ski|skin|sky|skype|sl|sli ng|sm|smart|smile|sn|sncf|so|soccer|social|softbank|software|sohu|solar|solutions|song|sony|soy|spac e|spiegel|sport|spot|spreadbetting|sr|srl|srt|ss|st|stada|staples|star|starhub|statebank|statefarm|s tatoil|stc|stcgroup|stockholm|storage|store|stream|studio|study|style|su|sucks|supplies|supply|suppo rt|surf|surgery|suzuki|sv|swatch|swiftcover|swiss|sx|sy|sydney|symantec|systems|sz|tab|taipei|talk|t aobao|target|tatamotors|tatar|tattoo|tax|taxi|tc|tci|td|tdk|team|tech|technology|tel|telecity|telefo nica|temasek|tennis|teva|tf|tg|th|thd|theater|theatre|tiaa|tickets|tienda|tiffany|tips|tires|tirol|t j|tjmaxx|tjx|tk|tkmaxx|tl|tm|tmall|tn|to|today|tokyo|tools|top|toray|toshiba|total|tours|town|toyota |toys|tp|tr|trade|trading|training|travel|travelchannel|travelers|travelersinsurance|trust|trv|tt|tu be|tui|tunes|tushu|tv|tvs|tw|tz|ua|ubank|ubs|uconnect|ug|uk|um|unicom|university|uno|uol|ups|us|uy|u z|va|vacations|vana|vanguard|vc|ve|vegas|ventures|verisign|versicherung|vet|vg|vi|viajes|video|vig|v iking|villas|vin|vip|virgin|visa|vision|vista|vistaprint|viva|vivo|vlaanderen|vn|vodka|volkswagen|vo lvo|vote|voting|voto|voyage|vu|vuelos|wales|walmart|walter|wang|wanggou|warman|watch|watches|weather |weatherchannel|webcam|weber|website|wed|wedding|weibo|weir|wf|whoswho|wien|wiki|williamhill|win|win dows|wine|winners|wme|wolterskluwer|woodside|work|works|world|wow|ws|wtc|wtf|xbox|xerox|xfinity|xihu an|xin|测试|कॉम|परीक्षा|セール|佛山|ಭಾರತ|慈善|集团|在线|한 국|ଭାରତ|大众汽车|点看|คอม|ভাৰত|ভারত|八卦|বাংলা|公 |公司|香格里拉|网站|移动|我爱你|москва|испытание|қаз|католик |онлайн|сайт|联通|срб|бг|бел|时尚|微博|테스트|淡马锡|ファッショ |орг|नेट|ストア|アマゾン|삼성|சிங்கப்பூர்|商标|商店|商 城|дети|мкд|ею|ポイント|新闻|工行|家電|中文网|中信|中国|中國|娱乐|谷 歌|భారత్|ලංකා|電訊盈科|购物|測試|クラウド|ભારત|通販|भा तम्|भारत|भारोत|பரிட்சை|网店|संगठन|餐厅|网络| ком|укр|香港|亚马逊|诺基亚|食品|δοκιμή|飞利浦|台湾|台灣|手表|手机| он|澳門|닷컴|政府|გე|机构|组织机构|健康|ไทย|招聘|рус|рф|珠宝|大 拿|ລາວ|みんな|グーグル|ευ|ελ|世界|書籍|ഭാരതം|ਭਾਰਤ|网址|닷 넷|コム|天主教|游戏|vermögensberater|vermögensberatung|企业|信息|嘉里大酒店|嘉 |广东|இலங்கை|இந்தியா|հայ|新加坡|テスト|政务|xperia|xxx|xyz|y achts|yahoo|yamaxun|yandex|ye|yodobashi|yoga|yokohama|you|youtube|yt|yun|za|zappos|zara|zero|zip|zip po|zm|zone|zuerich|zw)

IMPORTANT: Note that the regular expression shown above contains line breaks. SOLUTION: The regular expression is also available for download from the following URL:
email_extended_regexp.txt
(This regular expression is generated daily by "my" email_regexp_generator.)

In the case of a domain, the authority part of the URI does not contain an IP address, but a name.

The next step is to extract the TLD from the URI.

To this end, moving from left to right, search for the first occurrence of the single "/" (slash). This slash indicates the beginning of the path part that follows the authority part.

The authority part can optionally contain a port specification (0 to 65535) behind the TLD. If this is the case, discard that port number including the ":" (colon) to its left side.

Now, looking from right to left, search for a "." (dot) and write down the part to its right side (e.g. "com").
If this information is insufficient, you are probably dealing with a public suffix.
If this is the case, also write down the part to the left of the dot (e.g. "co.uk").

In the following examples, the TLDs and Public Suffixes in the URIs are highlighted in red and bold:

  • ftp://ftp.is.co.uk/rfc/rfc1808.txt
  • ftps://max:muster@ftp.example.de/archiv.zip
  • http://example.com/absolute/URI/with/absolute/path/to/resource.txt
  • https://www.example.org:8080/script.php?action=submit&pageid=2#section_3
  • mailto:John.Doe@example.net
  • mailto:torben@server.dk?cc=chief@company.no&subject=My%20order

If you have difficulties identifying the TLD or Public Suffix in any URI, choose the Pattern in the form at the beginning of this page, enter the remainder of the URL in the "Address" field and click "Extract".

You can use the Free Online Url Parser as an alternative service to parse URLs.

next